Tinctures are plants extracted into various strengths of ethanol (drinking alcohol), this creates a highly stable way of utilizing plants year-round and on-the-go. Their shelf life, if kept in the cool and dark, is often 10+ years. Dosages are often in drops or teaspoons, so the amount of alcohol ingested is minimal. Tinctures can be taken straight from the dropper or diluted in water, tea or juice. Most plants that I create medicine with have been personally wildcrafted and ALL have been wildcrafted with care and due-diligence to the land from which they were taken from.